Abbreviations and Conversions

Abbreviations

c/C cup
t/tsp teaspoon
T/tbsp/Tbs tablespoon
D/dstsp dessertspoon
˚C degrees Celsius
˚F degrees Fahrenheit
g/gr gram
kg kilogram
l/L litre
lb pound
ml millilitre
oz ounce
fl oz fluid ounce
pkt packet

Conversions

Temperature conversions

Fahrenheit
Degrees
Celsius
Degrees
Gas
Mark
Oven
Term
200 100 1/8 Very Low
225 110 1/4 Very Low
250 120 1/2 Very Low
275 140 1 Low
300 150 2 Low
325 160 3 Low
350 180 4 Moderate
375 190 5 Moderate
400 200 6 Moderate
425 220 7 High
450 230 8 High
475 240 9 High
500 260 10 Very High

 

Measuring conversions

 

Spoons Millilitres Cups Millilitres
1/8 tsp 1ml 1/8 cup 30ml
1/4 tsp 1.25ml 1/4 cup 60ml
1/2 tsp 2.5ml 1/3 cup 80ml
1 tsp 5ml 1/2 cup 125ml
2tsp 10ml 2/3 cup 170ml
3tsp 15ml 3/4 cup 190ml
1D 10ml 1 cup 250ml
1T 15ml 2 cups 500ml
2T 30ml 3 cups 750ml
3T 45ml 4 cups 1 litre
4T 60ml

 

Cake tin size conversions

Inches Millimetres Centimetres
5in 125mm 12.5cm
6in 150mm 15cm
7in 180mm 18cm
8in 200mm 20cm
9in 230mm 23cm
10in 250mm 25cm
11in 280mm 28cm
12in 300mm 30cm

 

 

Square tin to round cake tin conversions

Square Tin Round Tin
13cm or 130mm (5 inch) 15cm or 150mm (6 inch)
12.5cm or 125mm (5inch) 18cm or 180mm (7 inch)
18cm or 180mm (7 inch) 20cm or 200mm (8 inch)
20cm or 200mm (8 inch) 23cm or 230mm (9 inch)
23cm or 230mm (9 inch) 25cm or 250mm (11 inch)
25.5cm or 255mm(10inch) 28cm or 280mm (11 inch)
28cm or 280mm (11inch) 30cm or 300mm (12 inch)

 

Microwave oven conversions

Microwave recipes generally give terms based on a 700W to a 750W microwave oven.
The times below are given in minutes and seconds using 100% power.

1000W 850W 750W 650W 550W 450W
00:40 00:45 00:50 01:00 01:10 01:25
01:20 01:30 01:45 02:00 02:20 02:55
01:55 02:15 02:35 03:00 03:30 04:20
02:35 03:05 03:30 04:00 04:45 05:45
03:15 03:50 04:20 05:00 05:55 07:15
03:55 04:35 05:10 06:00 07:05 08:40
04:35 05:20 06:05 07:00 08:15 10:05
05:10 06:05 06:55 08:00 09:25 11:35
05:50 06:50 07:50 09:00 10:40 13:00
06:30 07:40 08:40 10:00 11:50 14:25
09:45 11:30 13:00 15:00 17:45 21:40
13:00 15:15 17:20 20:00 23:40 28:55

 

Ingredient conversions

Flour
1 cup (250ml)              =       100g
1 tablespoon (15ml)     =      8g

Sugar
1 cup (250ml)              =      200g
1 tablespoon (15ml)     =      15g

Icing Sugar
1 cup (250ml)              =      100g
1 tablespoon (15ml)     =      8g

Butter & Margarine
1 cup (250ml)              =      200g
1 tablespoon (15ml)     =      15g

Crumbs
1 cup (250ml)              =      50g
1 tablespoon (15ml)     =      4g

Rice
1 cup (250ml)              =      210g
1 tablespoon (15ml)     =      16g

Substituting ingredients

 

 

15ml cornflour / maizena 30ml cake flour
250ml self raising flour 250ml cake flour + 5ml baking powder
5ml cream of tartar 10ml lemon juice or vinegar
230g butter 220ml cooking oil
250ml melted butter 250ml cooking oil
250ml sugar 200ml golden syrup or honey
250ml sour milk 250ml milk + 20ml lemon juice or vinegar
250ml yoghurt 250ml buttermilk or sour cream
15ml fresh herbs 5ml dried herbs
5ml dry mustard powder 15ml prepared mustard

 

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Cooking and baking tips + 1 more

  • Using spray and cook (non stick spray) on your pan before frying your steak helps reduces splattering.  

I have added this tip to my list of cooking and baking tips which I previously posted just after I started my blog and thought I would share them with you all again.

Cooking and baking tips

 

  • Fresh herbs are best added during the last 10 minutes of cooking so they don’t lose their aromatic flavour.  If you are substituting dried herbs for fresh in a recipe, use one-third the quantity.
  • Fresh, room temperature eggs are best for cooking and baking.  The fresher the egg, the easier it is to separate the yolk from the white and the yolk is less likely to break.  Room temperature egg whites beat lighter and fuller than refrigerated ones.
  • To test the freshness of an egg, gently drop it into a glass of cold water.  If it sinks to the bottom it is fresh.  If it floats suspended in the middle of the glass, it is still useable but use it soon, however if it floats all the way to the surface, discard it.
  • If you accidently get a piece of egg shell in with your egg after cracking it into a bowl, use one half of the shell to scoop it out.
  • Remember to preheat your oven before you start baking or cooking.
  • If you happen to over salt a pot of soup or a stew, drop in a peeled potato. The potato will absorb the excess salt.
  • For crisper salads, place a saucer upside down in the bottom of the salad bowl before filling with salad. Excess moisture will run underneath the saucer and this will help keep the salad crisp and fresh.
  • You can substitute crumbled cornflakes for breadcrumbs.
  • When baking bread, do not preheat your oven.  You will be amazed at the resulting lightness of the bread.
  • For lighter fluffier pancakes, substitute half the milk with ice cold water or soda water.
  • To prevent a cheesecake from cracking in the centre while baking, place a small dish of water in the oven.
  • Drain deep fried foods on brown paper bags or brown paper as opposed to paper towels to retain crispness.
  • Dip the blades of scissors in hot water before cutting marshmallows to prevent the blades getting sticky.
  • Rinse your measuring cup or spoon in hot water before using syrup or honey so the syrup or honey won’t stick to the cup or spoon.
  • Keep popcorn fresh and encourage more kernels to pop by storing it in the freezer and use your popcorn straight from the freezer.
  • Sunlight doesn’t ripen tomatoes, warmth does. Store tomatoes with their stems pointed down and they will stay fresher, longer.
  • To keep potatoes from budding place an apple or two in the bag with the potatoes.
  • To prevent nuts settling at the bottom of your cake, heat them first in the microwave oven then dust them with flour before adding to the batter.
  • To get more juice from a lemon or lime, microwave it for 10 to 15 seconds before juicing.
  • Stand raw potatoes in cold water for at least half an hour before frying to improve the crispness of chips.
  • Ice cubes will eliminate the fat from soup and stew. Drop a few into the pot and stir lightly, the fat will cling to the cubes.  Remove the cubes before they melt. Alternatively, wrap ice cubes in paper towel and skim over the top.
  • A dampened paper towel brushed downward on a cob of corn will remove every strand of corn “hair”.
  • To stop your bacon curling and shrinking, dip it into cold water before frying.
  • A little salt placed in a frying pan will prevent splattering.
  • When making many meatballs a fast and simple way is to shape the meat mixture into a log and cut off slices.  The slices roll easily into balls. Another option is to pat the meat into a square and cut it into cubes, which again roll easily into meatballs of uniform size.
  • Hamburgers cook faster if you poke a hole in the middle while shaping them. The holes disappear as they cook.
  • Butter or oil the rim of a pot when cooking rice or pasta to prevent it boiling over.
  • Roll a chilli between your hands before cutting it lengthwise; this loosens the seeds and allows you to scrape them away easily.
  • A recipe book is easier to read if you hold it open with a wooden pants hanger that clamps shut. You can then hang it from a knob on a kitchen cabinet door.

Do you have any helpful tips?

How to test the doneness of your steak

How to test the doneness of your steak

 

This clever and fun tip should help take the mystery out of cooking your steak to perfection.

Lightly touch your thumb and index finger together and with the index finger of your other hand, poke the muscle pad below your thumb; this is what meat should feel like when it is rare.  

As you touch your middle finger and thumb together, the muscle should tense up a bit, indicating how your meat should feel when it is medium rare. 

Touching your thumb and ring finger together will help you gauge when your steak is medium.

Finally, touching your thumb and pinkie should tell you when it’s well done.