Abbreviations and Conversions


c/C cup
t/tsp teaspoon
T/tbsp/Tbs tablespoon
D/dstsp dessertspoon
˚C degrees Celsius
˚F degrees Fahrenheit
g/gr gram
kg kilogram
l/L litre
lb pound
ml millilitre
oz ounce
fl oz fluid ounce
pkt packet


Temperature conversions

200 100 1/8 Very Low
225 110 1/4 Very Low
250 120 1/2 Very Low
275 140 1 Low
300 150 2 Low
325 160 3 Low
350 180 4 Moderate
375 190 5 Moderate
400 200 6 Moderate
425 220 7 High
450 230 8 High
475 240 9 High
500 260 10 Very High


Measuring conversions


Spoons Millilitres Cups Millilitres
1/8 tsp 1ml 1/8 cup 30ml
1/4 tsp 1.25ml 1/4 cup 60ml
1/2 tsp 2.5ml 1/3 cup 80ml
1 tsp 5ml 1/2 cup 125ml
2tsp 10ml 2/3 cup 170ml
3tsp 15ml 3/4 cup 190ml
1D 10ml 1 cup 250ml
1T 15ml 2 cups 500ml
2T 30ml 3 cups 750ml
3T 45ml 4 cups 1 litre
4T 60ml


Cake tin size conversions

Inches Millimetres Centimetres
5in 125mm 12.5cm
6in 150mm 15cm
7in 180mm 18cm
8in 200mm 20cm
9in 230mm 23cm
10in 250mm 25cm
11in 280mm 28cm
12in 300mm 30cm



Square tin to round cake tin conversions

Square Tin Round Tin
13cm or 130mm (5 inch) 15cm or 150mm (6 inch)
12.5cm or 125mm (5inch) 18cm or 180mm (7 inch)
18cm or 180mm (7 inch) 20cm or 200mm (8 inch)
20cm or 200mm (8 inch) 23cm or 230mm (9 inch)
23cm or 230mm (9 inch) 25cm or 250mm (11 inch)
25.5cm or 255mm(10inch) 28cm or 280mm (11 inch)
28cm or 280mm (11inch) 30cm or 300mm (12 inch)


Microwave oven conversions

Microwave recipes generally give terms based on a 700W to a 750W microwave oven.
The times below are given in minutes and seconds using 100% power.

1000W 850W 750W 650W 550W 450W
00:40 00:45 00:50 01:00 01:10 01:25
01:20 01:30 01:45 02:00 02:20 02:55
01:55 02:15 02:35 03:00 03:30 04:20
02:35 03:05 03:30 04:00 04:45 05:45
03:15 03:50 04:20 05:00 05:55 07:15
03:55 04:35 05:10 06:00 07:05 08:40
04:35 05:20 06:05 07:00 08:15 10:05
05:10 06:05 06:55 08:00 09:25 11:35
05:50 06:50 07:50 09:00 10:40 13:00
06:30 07:40 08:40 10:00 11:50 14:25
09:45 11:30 13:00 15:00 17:45 21:40
13:00 15:15 17:20 20:00 23:40 28:55


Ingredient conversions

1 cup (250ml)              =       100g
1 tablespoon (15ml)     =      8g

1 cup (250ml)              =      200g
1 tablespoon (15ml)     =      15g

Icing Sugar
1 cup (250ml)              =      100g
1 tablespoon (15ml)     =      8g

Butter & Margarine
1 cup (250ml)              =      200g
1 tablespoon (15ml)     =      15g

1 cup (250ml)              =      50g
1 tablespoon (15ml)     =      4g

1 cup (250ml)              =      210g
1 tablespoon (15ml)     =      16g

Substituting ingredients



15ml cornflour / maizena 30ml cake flour
250ml self raising flour 250ml cake flour + 5ml baking powder
5ml cream of tartar 10ml lemon juice or vinegar
230g butter 220ml cooking oil
250ml melted butter 250ml cooking oil
250ml sugar 200ml golden syrup or honey
250ml sour milk 250ml milk + 20ml lemon juice or vinegar
250ml yoghurt 250ml buttermilk or sour cream
15ml fresh herbs 5ml dried herbs
5ml dry mustard powder 15ml prepared mustard




Often we buy knife sets and only use the one or two we are comfortable with – sometimes we are unsure of the correct uses for all the others.  This list covers all the basic home kitchen knives.




A meat Cleaver is a large, rectangular knife that is used for splitting or “cleaving” meat and bone.  The edge is sharply bevelled and the bevel is typically convex.  The knife is designed to cut with a swift stroke.  The cleaver most often found in a home knife set is a light-duty cleaver about 15cm long.

A Bread knife is a serrated knife that is on average 20cm in length.  The serrations on the blade make it ideal for cutting bread and other foods with a hard surface and soft interior.

A Boning knife is used to remove bones from cuts of meat.  It has a thin, often flexible blade, usually about 12cm to 15cm long that allows it to get into small spaces.  A stiff knife is good for beef and pork, but a flexible boning knife is preferred for poultry and fish.

A Chef’s knife also known as a cook’s knife or French knife is an all-purpose knife that is curved to allow the cook to rock the knife on the cutting board for a more precise cut.  Chef’s knives are mostly between 15cm and 30cm, with 20cm being the most common size.

A Carving knife is a large knife between 20cm and 38cm that is used to slice thin precise cuts of meat, poultry, roasts, hams and other large cooked meats.

A Paring knife is a small knife with a plain edge blade that is ideal for peeling and other small or intricate work such as de-veining shrimp, removing seeds from chillies, or cutting small garnishes.  It is designed to be an all-purpose knife, similar to a Chef’s knife, except much smaller.  Parking knives are usually between 6cm and 10cm long.